ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL INDICES IN EARTHQUAKE RESILIENCE OF BABOL NEIGHBORHOODS, IRAN
In recent years, one of the most important goals of urban managers has been the planning for resilience to natural disasters, especially earthquakes. Babol, as the second most populous city of Mazandaran province in northern Iran, is exposed to earthquakes due to its proximity to two active faults, the Caspian Sea and northern Alborz. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective physical indicators in the resilience rate of 22 neighborhoods of Babol. The research method is descriptive-analytical and applied-developmental. Accordingly, 48 effective indicators in the physical dimension were extracted and evaluated for their suitability through KMO test in consultation with experts and professors in urban planning, crisis management and earthquake. Then, the selected indices were reduced to four factors by factor analysis, which accounted for 61.9% of the variance. Among the four factors, the first factor alone accounted for 24.8% of the variance, which is the most influential factor in the study, and the fourth factor with 10.3% of the variance has the least effect. Cluster analysis was used for homogeneous classification of the neighborhoods and Babol's 22 neighborhoods were classified into 8 homogeneous groups. The results of clustering method show that about 40.9% of neighborhoods are evaluated as very poor, poor and relatively poor and in undesirable conditions in general. Also, about 18.2% of the neighborhoods are in the medium level and about 40.2% of the neighborhoods are evaluated as good, very good, excellent and very excellent levels in terms of physical resilience.
ALEXANDER, DAVID. Principles of Emergency and management. Oxford: University Press, 2000.
AL-KHAFAJI, WADHAH MAHMOOD SHAKIR., AL-DABBAGH, HAYDER ABDUL ZAHRA A geophysical correlation between near-surface radioactivity and subsurface faults detected by gravity method for a region located in the western desert of Iraq. 2019. Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences, 11(2) pp 95-103.
ALLEN, R. M. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation: New Directions and opportunities, university of California Berkeley, Berekeley, CA, USA: 607-647, 2007.
CARREÑO, M. L. et al. Holistic Disaster Risk Evaluation for the Urban Risk Management Plan of Manizales, Colombia. Int J Disaster Risk Sci 8, 258–269 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13753-017-0136-7
CUTTER,S. L. et al. A Place-based model for understanding Community resilience to natural disasters. 2008. Global Environmental Change. 18: 598-606.
DAVIS, I.; Y. IZADKHAH. Building resilient urban Communities. 2006. OHE. 31(1):11-21.
ESLAMLOU. M; MIRMOGHTADEE. M. Evaluation of urban Resiliency in physico structural Dimension of Karaj Metropolis. 2016. Space ontology International Journal, 6(1): 37-46.
FALLAH, M., MOHAMMAD NAVAEI, A. The Role of Designing Flexible and Resilient Urban Spaces in Crisis Management, 2014. Fifth International Conference on Comprehensive Management of Natural Critics (INDM-2014)
FARZAD BEHTASH, M. R.; KINEJAD, M. A.; PIRBABAIE, M. T.; ASGARI, A. Evaluating and Analyzing the Resilience Dimensions and Components of Tabriz Metropolitan Area. 2013. Fine Arts Journal 18 (3): 33-42.
FOLKE, C. Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social ecological systems analyses. 2006. Global Environmental Change. 16(3):253-267.
GODSCHALK, D. Urban Hazard mitigation: creating Resilient cities. 2003. Natural Hzazard Reviw: 136-143.
HABIBI, K.; JAVANMARDI, K., , Analysis of urban context instability and zoning of earthquake vulnerability using GIS & AHP (Case Study: Part of Central Core of Sanandaj). 2011. ArmanShahr Journal of Architecture and Urban Development. 11: 293-305.
HOLING, C. S. Resilience and stability of Ecological systems. 1973. Annual Review of Ecology and systematics. 1(4): 1-23.
MARTINELLI A., CIFANI G. Bulding Vulnerability Assessment and Damage scenarios incelano (Italy) using a Quick Survey Data - based methodology. 2008. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 28: 875-889.
MAYUNGA, J. S. Understanding and applying the concept of community disaster resilience: A capital based approach. A draft working paper prepared for the summer academy for social vulnerability and resilience. 2007. Building, 22, July, Munich, Germany. 1: 1-16.
McENTIRE, D. A. et al. A comparison of disaster paradigms: the search for a holistic policy guide. 2002. Public Administration Review, 62(3):267-281.
MEEROW, S.; NEWLLE, J.; STULTS. M. Defining urban resilience: a review. 2016. Landscape and Urban planning. 147: 38-49.
MITCHELL, T., HARRIS, K. Resilience: a risk management approach. 2012. Overseas Development Institute. 1-7.
MOE, T. L; PATHRANAKUL, P. An Integrated Approach to Natural Disaster Prevention and Management, Emerald Group Publishing Limited of natural hazards. 2006. Geographical Review. 15 (3): 396-413.
MOHAMMADI AHMADIAN, J.; SAHRAIAN, Z.; KHOSRAVI, F. The Role of Factors Affecting Physical Vulnerability of Jahrom City to Earthquake. 2010. Journal of Geographical Sciences Applied Research, 17: 121-143.
MOHAMMADI DEHCHESHMEH, M. Karaj Urban Permeability Assessment of Hazards. 2014. Journal of space planning and development 18 (3): 53-77.
NAZEMFAR, H.; PASHAZADEH, A. Evaluation of Urban Resilience against Natural Hazards, Case Study: Ardabil City. 2015. Journal of Space Geography, 8: 101-116.
NAZEMI, E.; ARIAN, M.A.; JAFARIAN, A.; POURKERMANI, M.; YAZDI, A. Studying The Genesis Of Igneous Rocks In Zarin-Kamar Region (Shahrood, Northeastern Iran) By Rare Earth Elements. 2019. Revista Gênero e Direito, 8(4), 446-466. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22478/ufpb.2179-7137.2019v8n4.48442.
NORMANDIN, J. M.; THERRIEN, M. C.; TANGUAY, G. A. City strength in times of turbulence: strategic resilience indicators. Urban Affairs Association 41st Conference, New Orleans, 2011.
OMAND, D. Developing national resilience. 2005. The RUSI Journal. 150(4):14-18.
POTERIE. A.; BAUDOIN, M. From Yokohama to Sendai: Approaches to participation in International Disaster Risk Reduction. 2015. Frameworks lnt j Disaster Risksci. 6: 128-139.
REZAEI, M.; RAFIIYAN M.; HOSSEINI, SM. Measurement and Evaluation of Physical Resilience of Urban Communities against Earthquake (Case Study: Tehran Neighborhoods. 2015. Journal of Human Geographical Research, 94: 609-623.
ROSE; A. Defining and measuring economic resilence to disasters. 2004. Disaster Prevention and Management. 13: 307-314.
ROSTAEI, S. H. Hazard zonation of Tabriz Fault for Different Urban Land Uses. 2010. Geography and Development Quarterly 9 (21): 19-21.
SABER MAHANI, S.; KHALILI, M. Thermal anomalies detection before earthquake using three filters (Fourier, Wavelet and Logarithmic Differential Filter), A Case study of two earthquakes in Iran. 2019. Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences. 11(1) 38-46.
SARVAR, H.; KASHANI, A. S. L. A. Assessment of Physical Vulnerability of Ahar City Against Earthquake Crisis. 2016. Journal of Environmental Management Quarterly 9 (34): 87-108.
SHOKRI, P. Spatial Analysis of Resilience of Babol Regions to Environmental Hazards. 2017. Journal of Physical Development Planning, 2 (2): 27-44.
TAGHIZADEH FARAHMAND, F.; AFSARI, N. Variation of Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundary beneath Iran by using S Receiver function. 2018. Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences, 10(1) p. 11-19.
THILO, L. Urban Resilience and Vew. Institutional Theory: a happy couple for urban and Regional Studies. 2011. German Annual of spatial Research and policy, p. 15-24.
TUCKER, B. E. Some Remark Concerning Worldwide Earthquake Hazard and Earthquke Hazard mitigation. 1994. Issues in urban Earthquake Risk, p. 1-10.
YAZDI, A. et al. Magmatic interactions as recorded in plagioclase phenocrysts of quaternary volcanics in SE Bam (SE Iran). 2019. Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences, 11(3): 215-224.
ZANGI, A. et al. Assessment of vulnerability of earthquake crisis central part of Iranian metropolitan cities using IHWP model (Case study: Isfahan District 3) 2013. Journal of Space Geography, 8: 137-156.
ZIYARI, K. et al. Prioritizing immunization of the old context of Karaj metropolitan area using multi-criteria evaluation model. 2012. Journal of Human Geography Research, 79: 1-14.
ZHOU L. et al. Emergency decision making for natural disasters: An overview. 2017. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 27 567-576.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Policy Proposal for Free Access Journals
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which allows the sharing of the work with acknowledgment of the authorship of the work and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are authorized to take additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (eg publish in institutional repository or as a book chapter), with acknowledgment of authorship and initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are allowed and encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (eg in institutional repositories or on their personal page) at any point before or during the editorial process, as this can generate productive changes, as well as increase the impact and The citation of published work (See The Effect of Free Access).